benishangul gumuz sudan

Do their policies help peace or exacerbate conflict? Amnesty International reported in December that members of the ethnic Gumuz community the ethnic majority in the region attacked the homes of ethnic Amhara, Oromo and Shinasha. People from neighboring weredas of Agalo Meti and Yaso, primarily those representing non-Gumuz ethnic groups, have left their villages in fear of a similar scenario. The command post also tried to deter the militias by declaring that it would make door-to-door hunts and take all necessary measures to apprehend militia members. 505 from Sudan 1,054 from Somalia and 25,947 from South Sudan (NRC, 2014). Alessandro Triulzi, "Asosa", in: Siegbert Uhlig (Hrsg.). The Gumuz see minorities as settlers, the rights group said. Climate change, population growth and a regional fight for water resources are all contributing to the risk of water imbalance, experts say. Dessalegn Chanie, an Amhara opposition politician, said there had been signs in recent days that armed men from the Oromo and Gumuz ethnic groups were preparing an attack, particularly in areas where there was little federal security presence. This figure does not include the uncounted and unreported displacement of Gumuz and Shinasha people that took place within Metekel Zone. The region has faced major challenges to economic development, due to lack of transportation and communications infrastructure. As the Berta People's Liberation Movement[21] or Benishangul People's Liberation Movement (BPLM), they - like the Gambella People's Liberation Movement of the Anuak in Gambella - were not accepted as full members of the EPRDF, but became regional partners of the new ruling coalition.[13]. Topographically, the . As a subscriber, you have 10 gift articles to give each month. The most obscure of Ethiopia's regions, practically never visited by tourists, is Benishangul-Gumuz, which runs for about 2,000km along the Sudanese border to the east of Amhara, but is on average no more than 200km. Following the adoption of the 1995 constitution, the region was created from the westernmost portion of the Gojjam province (the part north of the Abay River), and the northwestern portion of the Welega Province (the part south of the Abay). Are there fears of exclusion? There are a few questions that I wish the author addressed. 24/7 coverage of breaking news and live events. Clashes had occasionally erupted in the past in the region that is home to various ethnic groups, including Gumuz, Agaws and Shinasas and the Amhara. Isnt your residence enough for identity and language service purposes? "The sea is rising in the Mediterranean Sea, and the land is sinking in the Nile Delta. There are also Sudanese and Egyptian interests to consider. A sharp increase in food and fuel costs and conflict-caused displacement are being compounded by a worsening climate crisis. Concerning religion, 44.98% of the population were Muslim, 33.3% were Orthodox Christians, 13.53% were Protestant, and 7.09% practiced traditional beliefs. 1985. By foregoing action to investigate crimes and ensure accountability, the signed agreement has also neglected the issue of justicea foundation of sustainable peace. Although Mr. Abiy declared victory in Tigray last month, United Nations officials say the fight continues. What is the rationale behind having an ethnic identity card? 1958. TV host Ahmed Moussa, who is close to security quarters in Egypt, broadcast on Sada el-Balad channel on April 25 video segments of Ethiopians chanting slogans against their prime minister and tearing up his photo. Conditions for travel within zones varies, but is often poor and subject to disruption by the rainy season. It was not until the mid-20th century that Berta also settled in the lowlands, as slave hunts and armed conflict had ended. The EU has joined the United States in demanding Eritrean troops withdraw. Communities have been torn apart. In 2019, Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed said his country should be ready for a war with Egypt over the dispute. Returning the displaced people into their villages will bring durable solutions but should be carefully handled. According to the CSA, as of 2004[update], 27.23% of the total population had access to safe drinking water, of whom 22.35% were rural inhabitants and 58.53% were urban. Opposition political parties, like the Boro Democratic Party (BDP), rejected the 18 May agreement between the regional government and the leaders of the militias, which included power-sharing elements, as illegitimaterecalling that the only way to assume power should be through an election. All rights reserved. Insecurity has prevented people from accessing their land for next years farming. 1994. Many of those who are still in the region are not getting humanitarian aid. 1986. The number of refugees arriving per month has been steadily reducing and in May only 159 new arrivals were registered in Kassala and Geraref and another 162 new . Survivors of a massacre in December in the Benishangul-Gumuz region of Ethiopia. It shares common borders with the State of Amhara in the east, the Sudan in the north-east, and the State of Oromia in the south. This article attempts to investigate and analyze the relationship between Beni Shangul Gumuz and the central government in the period between 1898 and 1941 in the context of center-periphery theories. [citation needed] The Gumuz number around 200,000 individuals. The agricultural implements and cutting tools of Begemder and Semyen, Ethiopia. ", The following day, Ethiopias Irrigation Minister Seleshi Bekele referred to plots against his country, due to the GERD. The Amhara regional state and Amhara activists say that Metekkel was forcibly included under the Benishangul-Gumuz regional state after the Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front took power in 1991. Back in 2003 when I was doing fieldwork for my book on inter-ethnic relations in Metekkel, people from the different communities were unanimous in their desire to coexist peacefully. But the region is also home to minority Amharas, Oromos, Tigrayans and Agaws a source of escalating tension. Copyright 20102023, The Conversation Media Group Ltd, Ethiopia's new party is welcome news, but faces big hurdles, area has become a juncture for different interest groups, actors from the neighbouring Amhara state, Why Ethiopia's new leader could be a game changer, opposed to the second filling of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam without negotiation, owned up to orchestrating ethnic targeted killings, Chief of Staff (Global Culture and Engagement), Lecturer in Environmental Art - School of Art and Design. Twelve people were killed. But attacks and tensions remain high. In 2019, Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed said his country should be ready for a war with Egypt over the dispute. An aerial view of the Nile is seen during World Water Day in Cairo, March 22, 2023. 1993. Since then, death from violence been rampant in the whole region. "It will determine the impact of this disruption and the reduction to the volumes of water that goes to Egypt," he said. The major road that connects the Metekel Zone and the Assosa Zone was built by the China Construction Company in 2012. The area comprising Benishangul-Gumuz formally became part of Ethiopia under the terms of a Nile-focused 1902 treaty signed by Emperor Menelik II with Great Britain, which ruled Sudan. Finally, Benishangul-Gumuz local government officials have owned up to orchestrating ethnic targeted killings in Metekkel as push back against Prime Minister Abiy Ahmeds new Prosperity Party, which replaced At least 7,000 people who fled escalating ethnic violence in western Ethiopia have sought asylum in neighbouring Sudan, the United Nations refugee agency (UNHCR) has said, amid heightened tensions between the two neighbouring countries. The risk of domestic violence is rising. [citation needed]. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. While the world is focusing on the humanitarian crisis in northern Ethiopia caused by the war between the federal government and the Tigray Peoples Liberation Front, brutal repetitive attacks have taken place in the Metekkel zone of the Benishangul-Gumuz state in western Ethiopia. Before picking a side, it is important to put the agreement between the militias and the regional government into perspective. Ethiopia Atlas of Key Demographic and Health Indicators, 2005." It was previously known as Region 6. Read more: That is why we must all persevere and do our part., Ethiopias parliamentary committee tasked with appraising the dispute over the GERD officially accused Sudan and Egypt on March 5 of standing behind the violence in the Benishangul-Gumuz region.. [12], Like the Gambela Region, Benishangul-Gumuz is historically closely linked to neighbouring areas of Sudan, and to a lesser extent to the Ethiopian Highlands. Klausberger, Friedrich. Tsegaye is studying for a Peace and Development Work Masters degree at Linnaeus University in Sweden and is a political science lecturer at Assosa University. It is becoming unsafe to present identity cards that show the holders ethnicity, even at security checkpoints, as this may result in persecution. The committees head, Abdallah Hamo, said that the committees investigation found that Sudan and Egypt support violence in the region, and that the armed groups received training and illegal weapons at the border with Sudan. The most affected states are Jonglei, Unity, Upper Nile, Lakes, Eastern Equatoria (Kapoeta East) and Warrap - more than 80 per cent of those food insecure. Benishangul -Gumuz. UNHCR says most of the asylum seekers who fled ethnic violence in Benishangul-Gumuz region have been living among Sudanese host communities. According to their traditions, in earlier times they inhabited the western parts of the province of Gojjam, but were progressively banished to the inhospitable area of the Blue Nile and its tributaries by their more powerful Afroasiatic-speaking neighbors, the Amhara and Agaw, who also enslaved them (Wolde-Selassie Abbute 2004). With mounting grievances against the regime, on 12 October 2020, the then chairman of the command post and deputy prime minister, Demeke Mekonnon, strangely and officially called people in Metekel to organize and arm themselves for defense. The incumbent parliament has 99 seats. Eighteen years later, marginalisation, ethnic exclusion, poor governance and the absence of workable democratic mechanisms have significantly affected community relations. Unseth, Peter. Slavery did not disappear in Ethiopia until the 1940s. There was resettlement of highlanders to their area, particularly linked to the availability of land and water. The diplomatic dispute with Sudan and Egypt should be solved through dialogue and the dam negotiations should proceed amicably. The question of Eritrean troops is extremely sensitive, so we dont get the clear answer about the whereabouts or magnitude of the Eritrean troops, he said. Its main inhabitants are the Gumuz, Oromo, Awi, Amhara, and Shinasha communities. The Amhara claim should be handled through constitutional means; not by force. This has received mixed reactions among residents and watchers of the region. Within the federal political arrangement, the Gumuz and the Shinasha control the six districts in the local administration structure. Negotiations over an agreement between the three nations over the filling of the dam have stalled recently. The massacre in Benishangul-Gumuz region, along the border with Sudan, is the latest challenge to the regime of Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, who came to power in 2018 promising to unite Ethiopia but has struggled to contain a growing wave of ethnic violence. Amharas are the second most populous ethnic group in Ethiopia and they have been targeted repeatedly over the last year. 1975. The parliamentary defense committee affirms the Egyptians right to resort to all means so as to preserve their rights, and that all options are available in countering the Ethiopian intransigence.. Benishangul-Gumuz (Amharic: , romanized:Benangul Gumuz) is a regional state in northwestern Ethiopia bordering Sudan. . I suspect justice means something different to the rebel group than to this author and government. "Experimenting with Non-Territorial Autonomy: Indigenous Councils in Ethiopia". Turn on desktop notifications for breaking stories about interest? The new influx of refugees into Sudan comes amid tensions between Addis Ababa and Khartoum over a border dispute and the deadlocked talks over a massive dam Ethiopia is building on the Blue Nile, the main tributary of the Nile River. Metekel Zone, located in Benishangul Gumuz Region of Ethiopia, is home to many ethnic groups, such as the Gumuz, the Amharas and the Shinashas. [6] It had a projected population of 1,127,001 in 2018.[2]. Firstly, government-sponsored reconciliation efforts were made since the eruption of the violence which, unfortunately, failed to produce the expected outcome. But hitherto the default position of both the Ethiopian state and opposition forces is violence. On April 19, Ahmed said that Ethiopia will fill the GERD reservoir in July and August, despite objections from the two downstream countries, Egypt and Sudan. The area has been under the stewardship of the command post since September 2020. The Bega (Gumuz) of Wellega: Agriculture and subsistence. Photos from the aftermath of the attack, provided by local activists, showed bloodied bodies of women and children strewn on the ground, many with horrific wounds. Bambasi (also known as Abba Moti) is a town in western Ethiopia. Do Not Sell or Share My Personal Information. Egypts Al-Bawaba News, which is close to the state, reported in an April 23 article that a civil war is unfolding in Ethiopia due to the poor economic and social conditions in the country and its citizens being marginalized and isolated. The ethnic groups include the Berta (25.41%), Amhara (21.69%), Gumuz (20.88%), Oromo (13.55%), Shinasha (7.73%) and Agaw-Awi (4.22%). Assosa Zone makes less than half of constituencies, which does not guarantee the establishment of a regional government. On 2 April, unnamed Gumuz militias claimed control of the administrative center of Sedal Wereda in Kamashi, very close to the construction site of the GERD. Bashanga, das Strafrecht der Baga-Gumuz. It is subdivided in several dialects (Ahland 2004, Unseth 1985). Food insecurity is likely to rise by seven per cent across South Sudan in the coming months, compared to last year, according to a new UN report on food security, issued on Wednesday, leading humanitarians to renew their call for more humanitarian and livelihoods assistance to stave off looming hunger and enhance resilience. Ethnic violence poses a major challenge to Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed as he tries to promote national unity in a country with more than 80 ethnic groups. Memos - premium analytical writing: actionable insights on markets and geopolitics. All Gumuz are organized in clans. Zanni, Leone. Ahmad, Abdussamad H. 1999. Many Gumuz became sedentary while continuing their agricultural system. Similarly, Ethiopian asylum seekers have been crossing from the Benishangul-Gumuz region into Sudan's Blue Nile State. Finally, the regional government felt obliged to engage in a dialogue and negotiation with the Gumuz militia. The GERD is expected to make the country a major power exporter in the region. Sorghum is used for cooking porridge (nga) and brewing beer (kea). Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}1046N 3532E / 10.767N 35.533E / 10.767; 35.533. Regardless, some efforts were tried and they all failed. Flag of the Benishangul-Gumuz Region. Benishangul-Gumuz Regional state, Western Ethiopia Research Article Volume 25 Issue 5 - September 2020 . That means the election will only take place in Benishangul-Gumuzs Assosa Zone. Unfortunately, in the last two years, the people in Metekel are enduring terrible shortages, and famine looms ahead due to a manmade crisis. From aboriginal to frontier society in western Ethiopia. Those who supported the agreement argued that negotiation and compromise are positive by their nature and should be appreciated. This is because the Blue Nile, which originates from Ethiopia, supplies up to 80% of the Nile waters. [7], In the Metekel conflict, starting in 2019, Gumuz militia were allegedly involved in attacks against Amhara, Agaw, Oromo and Shinasha civilians.[8][9][10]. By drawing a bad lesson, other groups may also end up emulating similar measures. Bender, M. Lionel. [18] In 1898, Asosa became the political and economic capital. In the chaos that followed, houses were torched and an old man was beheaded outside his house, Mr. Sebsibie said. In. What are their hopes and their fears? Eritrean writer and analyst Shifa al-Afari told Al-Monitor that the Benishangul-Gumuz region is currently seeing unprecedented tension that could be characterized as a state of war. According to him, this is the first time that this armed group, which took control of the county, and these weapons appear in the region. They also began to spread Islam among the Berta. Abiy, the winner of the Nobel 2019 Peace Prize, declared victory after federal forces entered the regional capital of Mekelle in late November, though the TPLF pledged to fight on and clashes have persisted in the region, hampering efforts to deliver humanitarian assistance. According to the regions constitution, the Benishangul-Gumuz State Council should have less than 100 seats. The attacks by armed militia, mainly from the Gumuz people against the Oromo, Amhara, Shinasha, and Awi residents of Metekkel, escalated in September 2020 and continued into March of 2021. I do not think the article addressed why the Gumuz rebel. Addis Ababa and Asmara both deny that Eritrean forces are involved in the conflict, contradicting witness reports from civilians, aid workers and some military and government officials in Tigray. Weekly A.I. The attacks have been aggravated by recent land grabs by Amhara and other non-indigenous investors who want to control the zones agricultural and mining sectors. is a trusted and award-winning independent source of Middle East news and analysis, founded in 2012. Several investors previously engaged in commercial farming where a variety of cash cropslike seasame and groundnutswere produced for export. BDP also expressed frustration over the regional governments willingness to share power with militias while imprisoning and persecuting legally organized political parties in the region. The town is named after the highest point in the Asosa Zone of the Benishangul-Gumuz Region, Mount Bambasi. Often the Gumuz' lands were allocated to transnational or domestic investors. With widespread instability and difficulty reaching IDPs, victims of violence are out of arms reach from humanitarian assistancewhether from the regional government or from national and international non-governmental organizations. Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed's government has provided scant information on recent violence in Benishangul-Gumuz, particularly in Metekel zone, where Debate is located. It is worrying indeed that the attention of national and international actors is turned almost exclusively to the war in Tigray. The murky politics behind the Metekel massacres, Benishangul conflict spurred by investment, land titling, rumors, Although the National Electoral Board of Ethiopia (NEBE). I have no confidence in the proposed solution. In, Wallmark, Peter. Metekkel zone has been placed under a command post that is directly responsible to the prime minister. UNHCR is working to install basic. These traders married into the Berta upper class and thus gained political influence. Bambasi has a longitude and latitude of 945N 3444E with an elevation of 1668 meters above sea level. Full Release Over 100,000 people, mainly a large proportion of Amhara and Agaw people, have been displaced, the majority fleeing into Chagni, Ranch camp. document.getElementById( "ak_js_1" ).setAttribute( "value", ( new Date() ).getTime() ); This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Independent, trusted coverage of the Middle East, Ethiopian PM accuses Egypt, Sudan of backing unrest in western region. Haavisto also warned that Sudan is struggling to cope with the influx of people fleeing the fighting and said it risked creating a major refugee crisis. Note Etnografiche. Refugees and internally displaced people are at the centre of the food ration cuts, compounding a desperate situation for millions of people uprooted from their homes and often relying on aid to survive, said Clementine Nkweta-Salami, UNHCRs Regional Bureau Director for the East, Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes. With an estimated area of 49,289.46 square kilometers, this Region has an estimated density of 15.91 people per square kilometer. However, due to increased population which has led to the widespread destruction of the canopy, authorities announced a campaign on 8 June 2007 to plant 1.5 million seedlings over the next two months to replenish this resource. 1975. A group of Gumuz men came to our village chanting leave our land, said Sebsibie Ibrahim, 36, a shop owner in Metekel district, speaking by phone. Sister exchange marriage. Days later, the national army regained control of the town, but the event laid bare a deteriorated security apparatus, leaving many civilians with the impression that they have little hope for proper protection. UNHCR and partners move refugees to safety in the Benishangul Gumuz region in Ethiopia. Control of the area must be regained. Tigray has been the theatre of fighting since early November, when Prime Minister Abiy announced military operations against the regions ruling Tigray Peoples Liberation Front (TPLF) party, accusing them of attacking federal army camps. Concise, actionable scenarios and predictions from top regional experts. If you dont influence it now then the circumstances will build so that there are more and more refugees coming.. The growth in refugee numbers has not been matched by a growth in resources, forcing WFP to make difficult decisions about who receives food assistance and who goes without. Fighting broke out on 18 January in the town of Tongo - reportedly between unidentified armed groups and federal forces - and the nearby camp . On the other hand, Egypt considers the dam a major threat to its food security. Many Gumuz people have been displaced and they are not happy that the investors are hiring non-Gumuz workers to aid in their occupation of an area that is rich in resources like gold, marble and fertile agricultural land. Awadi denied any Egyptian involvement in the recent violence in the Benishangul-Gumuz region. Special Events - Intimate in-person events with business & political VIPs. In 2019, the Metekel conflict began. 2023 Al-Monitor, LLC. They encouraged attacks on non-Gumuz inhabitants who they felt would gain the upper hand in the administration of the Metekkel zone if the current federal arrangement were to be altered. They said that many of the victims were ethnic Amharas and Agaws, who are a minority in that region. Even heavily guarded transport vehicles traveling to the GERD site, escorted by troops of armed personnel, are not safe from militia attacks. The dam is in Guba, one of the six districts in Metekkel. [13] Besides slaves, gold was traditionally an important export of Benishangul. Meanwhile, the security response in Benishangul-Gumuz is not showing any capability of de-escalation. Ethiopian officials have insisted that the dam will not impede on both Sudan and Egypt's water supply. For the umpteenth time, we call on the federal and regional authorities to scale up security in Metekel, he said, referring to the district of Benishangul-Gumuz where the killings took place. Ethiopia may not have control over the behavior of Egypt and Sudan. Ethiopias former ruling coalition, the Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front. UNHCR and partners move refugees to safety in the Benishangul Gumuz region in Ethiopia. Consideration must be given to minority rights in order to reconcile important democratic principles with realities on the ground. Guba is the closest district to Sudan. It was previously known as Region 6. The regional government announced the signing of an agreement with the militia group on 18 May in Gilgel Beles town. They speak the Gumuz language, which belongs to the Nilo-Saharan family. It has been over six months since more than 207 people were massacred in a single day on 24 December 2020 in Bakuji, a small kebele in Bullen Wereda. Millions of displaced families across eastern Africa will fall deeper into hunger as food rations dwindle due to humanitarian resources being stretched to the limit as the world grapples with a toxic cocktail of conflict, climate shocks, and COVID-19, UN humanitarians warned on Wednesday. The road has a 365-meter bridge that crosses the Abay. Sudanese Foreign Ministry spokesmanMansour Bouladresponded to the Ethiopian accusations on March 5, saying in apress statement, Sudan has no intention to invest in violence in its relations with other countries.. [13], According to Negasso Gidada, Oromo penetration into the region began in the mid-18th century. The choice may be clear : it may be a bitter pill to swallow: do we want to see one Ethiopia, living in a relative peace ,by changing some agreement on the dam or sticking to our current position and face the eternal infighting and the disintegration of the country? Benishangul-Gumuz ( Amharic: , romanized : Benangul Gumuz) is a regional state in northwestern Ethiopia to the border of Sudan. The access situation in Benishangul-Gumuz and parts of western Oromia has evolved since OCHA's map from late January - some improvements but still large areas "hard-to-reach" due to the security situation & related restrictions. [14][20], Resistance to the Mengistu regime here came mainly from the Berta. It borders the Amhara and Oromia states, and Sudan. and militarization in Ethiopia's Benishangul-Gumuz Region led to the closure of the . On April 22, the government-appointed Ethiopian Human Rights Commissionannounced that an armed group has taken full control of a county in Benishangul-Gumuz, killing and committing acts of violence against civilians, while security forces could not stop it. I Preniloti: unarcaica provincia culturale in Africa. [15][14], Later in the 19th century, Benishangul was affected by the Mahdi uprising. Haavisto, who met Abiy during his visit to Addis Ababa this month as part of a fact-finding mission, said Ethiopias leadership had failed to provide a clear picture of the situation in Tigray including the widely documented involvement of forces from neighbouring Eritrea. In particular, the proposed power-sharing arrangements with the militias has raised many eyebrows. [14], Little is known about its history before the 19th century. Egypt is not the only country that depends on the river -- it's shared by 11 African countries. Unseth, Peter. An example is that settlers were attracted to a large irrigation project along the Kusa. Previously one had to travel through Wollega and Gojjam in the neighboring regions of Oromia and Amhara, a distance of 1,250 kilometers, but it is now around 378 kilometers on the new road and bridge. Already, reports indicate the presence of training operations for militias in the Ethiopia-Sudan border. It was fighting the government of Ethiopia for more than 17 years and committed hundreds of deaths and huge number of displacements in the region until peace deal . Despite efforts to make resources stretch through prioritisation schemes, the agencies are having to prioritize food assistance for the most vulnerable families,they saidin a press release, while the sheer number of refugees in need of support has grown, along with the gap between resourcing and needs. , atlanta botanical gardens reciprocal membership, harrow recycling centre booking,

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